Header
Bookmark and Share

Zip Code 81643 Complete Analysis


Narrow Your Investigation To Make Informed Decisions?

All | Demographics | Education | Geography | Economic | Housing | Government | Taxes | Weather | Crime

Demographics Analysis

The people of zip code 81643 give the community character. This place is unique because of factors such as population size / density, ethnic background, ratio of males to females, and average age.

Total Population In Zip Code 81643 is 793



(updated 2010)



Male Population in Zip Code 81643: 408
Female Population in Zip Code 81643: 385


(updated 2013)



Median Male Resident Age in Zip Code 81643: 52.3
Median Female Resident Age in Zip Code 81643: 50.8


(updated 2013)



Median Age in the State of Colorado is 36


(updated 2010)



Median Age By Sex in Zip Code 81643


White


Both sexes

51.6

Male

52.2

Female

51.1

Black or African American


Both sexes

0.0

Male

0.0

Female

0.0

American Indian and Alaska Native


Both sexes

61.5

Male

61.5

Female

56.0

Asian


Both sexes

43.5

Male

36.0

Female

43.5

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander


Both sexes

0.0

Male

0.0

Female

0.0

Other


Both sexes

32.0

Male

19.5

Female

44.5

Two or More Races


Both sexes

59.5

Male

60.8

Female

35.5

Hispanic or Latino


Both sexes

30.5

Male

20.0

Female

44.0

White / Not Hispanic or Latino


Both sexes

52.0

Male

52.6

Female

51.1


(updated 2010)













Races in Zip Code 81643


  • White: 770
  • African American: 0
  • American Indian: 5
  • Asian: 3
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0
  • Some Other Race: 2
  • Two or More Races: 13



(updated 2013)



Ancestries in Zip Code 81643

  • German: 111   (16.9%)
  • Irish: 98   (14.9%)
  • English: 92   (14.0%)
  • United States Or American: 57   (8.7%)
  • Other Groups: 35   (5.3%)
  • Scottish: 26   (4.0%)
  • Norwegian: 26   (4.0%)
  • Swedish: 23   (3.5%)
  • Polish: 18   (2.7%)
  • Dutch: 14   (2.1%)
  • French (except Basque): 14   (2.1%)
  • French Canadian: 12   (1.8%)
  • Lithuanian: 11   (1.7%)
  • Czech: 11   (1.7%)
  • Scotch-irish: 11   (1.7%)
  • Portuguese: 10   (1.5%)
  • Welsh: 10   (1.5%)
  • Hungarian: 10   (1.5%)
  • Italian: 10   (1.5%)
  • Yugoslavian: 9   (1.4%)
  • Northern European: 9   (1.4%)
  • European: 8   (1.2%)
  • Danish: 6   (0.9%)
  • British: 6   (0.9%)
  • Pennsylvania German: 5   (0.8%)
  • Slavic: 5   (0.8%)
  • Guyanese: 4   (0.6%)
  • Swiss: 3   (0.5%)
  • Czechoslovakian: 2   (0.3%)
  • Scandinavian: 2   (0.3%)

(updated 2010)



Back to Top

Education Analysis

The amount of education a person receives can deeply affect their lives. The amount of education zip code 81643 citizens receive, averaged as group, may also affect the community.

Education Level of Population 25 Years and Over in Zip Code 81643

Male


  • No Schooling Completed: 0   (0%)
  • Nursery To 4th Grade: 0   (0%)
  • 5th And 6th Grade: 3   (1.23%)
  • 7th And 8th Grade: 0   (0%)
  • 9th Grade: 4   (1.64%)
  • 10th Grade: 2   (0.82%)
  • 11th Grade: 2   (0.82%)
  • 12th Grade, No Diploma: 8   (3.28%)
  • High School Graduate (includes Equivalency): 75   (30.74%)
  • Some College, Less Than 1 Year: 16   (6.56%)
  • Some College, 1 Or More Years, No Degree: 55   (22.54%)
  • Associate Degree: 20   (8.2%)
  • Bachelor's Degree: 34   (13.93%)
  • Master's Degree: 14   (5.74%)
  • Professional School Degree: 6   (2.46%)
  • Doctorate Degree: 5   (2.05%)

Female


  • No Schooling Completed: 0   (0%)
  • Nursery To 4th Grade: 0   (0%)
  • 5th And 6th Grade: 2   (0.84%)
  • 7th And 8th Grade: 3   (1.26%)
  • 9th Grade: 0   (0%)
  • 10th Grade: 2   (0.84%)
  • 11th Grade: 7   (2.94%)
  • 12th Grade, No Diploma: 18   (7.56%)
  • High School Graduate (includes Equivalency): 71   (29.83%)
  • Some College, Less Than 1 Year: 41   (17.23%)
  • Some College, 1 Or More Years, No Degree: 41   (17.23%)
  • Associate Degree: 10   (4.2%)
  • Bachelor's Degree: 31   (13.03%)
  • Master's Degree: 9   (3.78%)
  • Professional School Degree: 3   (1.26%)
  • Doctorate Degree: 0   (0%)


(updated 2010)







Back to Top

Geography Analysis

The actual land features relating to zip code 81643 affect how people live their lives. Natural features such as oceans, mountains, lakes, plains, and deserts all make a difference in the lives of individuals. The types of housing, heating fuels, and transportation infrastructure are largely influenced by the geography of zip code 81643.

Area Features of Zip Code 81643


Airport


(1) Lands End Microwave Heliport   (2) Phylcon Ranch Airport  

Basin


(1) Coal Creek Basin  

Bench


(1) West Bench  

Canal


(1) South Side Canal  

Cliff


(1) Lands End   (2) Spruce Point   (3) The Breaks   (4) White Slide  

Dam


(1) Anderson Number 1 Dam   (2) Anderson Number 2 Dam   (3) Anderson Number 6 Dam   (4) Basin Number 1 Dam   (5) Basin Number 2 Dam   (6) Big Battlement Dam   (7) Big Beaver Dam   (8) Blackman Dam   (9) Bolen Dam   (10) Bolen Anderson Jacobs Number 2 Dam   (11) Bull Basin Number 1 Dam   (12) Bull Basin Number 2 Dam   (13) Bull Creek Number 1 Dam   (14) Bull Creek Number 2 Dam   (15) Bull Creek Number 3 Dam   (16) Bull Creek Number 4 Dam   (17) Bull Creek Number 5 Dam   (18) Coon Creek Number 1 Dam   (19) Coon Creek Number 2 Dam   (20) Coon Creek Number 3 Dam   (21) Cottonwood Number 2 Dam   (22) Deep Creek Number 2 Dam   (23) Granby Number 11 Dam   (24) Granby Number 12 Dam   (25) Granby Number 6 Dam   (26) Granby Number 7 Dam   (27) Granby Number 9 Dam   (28) Grand Mesa Number 1 Dam   (29) Grand Mesa Number 6 Dam   (30) Grand Mesa Number 8 Dam   (31) Grand Mesa Number 9 Dam   (32) Griffith Number 1 Coon Creek 1 E Dam   (33) Hallenbeck Number 2 Dam   (34) Hogchute Dam   (35) Jensen Dam   (36) Jumbo Dam   (37) Little Battlement Dam   (38) Long Slough Dam   (39) Lost Lake Dam   (40) Mesa Creek Number 4 Dam   (41) Mesa Lake Number 1 Dam   (42) Mesa Lake Number 2 Dam   (43) Mesa Lake Number 3 Dam   (44) Pine Park 1 Dam   (45) Rapid Creek Number 1 Dam   (46) Rapid Creek Number 2 Dam   (47) Scales Number 1 Dam   (48) Scales Number 3 Dam   (49) Somerville-mccullah Dam   (50) Spring Creek Number 1 Dam   (51) Twin Basin Dam   (52) West Griffith Number 3 Dam   (53) Whale Dam  

Lake


(1) Clear Lake   (2) Crane Lake   (3) Greenwood Lake   (4) Lost Lake   (5) Mid Griffith Lake   (6) South Mesa Lake  

Locale


(1) Beaser Homestead   (2) Bull Creek Cow Camp   (3) Carver Homestead   (4) Crag Crest Trail Parking   (5) Crater View   (6) Glacier Spring Campground   (7) Grand Mesa Lodge   (8) Hallenbeck Cow Camp   (9) Island Lake Campground   (10) Jumbo Reservoir Campground   (11) Kiwanis Youth Camp   (12) Land O Lakes Overlook   (13) Meeker Tree   (14) Mesa Lake Picnic Area   (15) Mesa Lakes Ranger Station   (16) Morris Ranch   (17) Powderhorn Ski Area   (18) Skyway Point   (19) Spring Bull Cow Camp   (20) Spruce Grove Campground  

Populated Place


(1) John Held Corner   (2) Mesa Lakes   (3) Mesa Lakes Resort  

Reservoir


(1) Anderson Reservoir Number 1   (2) Anderson Reservoir Number 2   (3) Anderson Reservoir Number 6   (4) Ball Reservoir Number 1   (5) Barnes Reservoir   (6) Basin Number 1 Reservoir   (7) Basin Number 2 Reservoir   (8) Basin Reservoir Number 1   (9) Basin Reservoir Number 2   (10) Beaver Lake   (11) Big Battlement Lake   (12) Big Beaver Reservoir   (13) Blackman Reservoir   (14) Bolen Reservoir   (15) Bolen Anderson And Jacobs Reservoir Number 2   (16) Bolen Anderson Jocobs Reservoir Number 2   (17) Bull Basin Reservoir Number 1   (18) Bull Basin Reservoir Number 2   (19) Bull Creek Reservoir Number 1   (20) Bull Creek Reservoir Number 2   (21) Bull Creek Reservoir Number 3   (22) Bull Creek Reservoir Number 4   (23) Bull Creek Reservoir Number 5   (24) Burckhalter Reservoir Number 1   (25) Carson Lake   (26) Cold Sore Reservoir   (27) Coon Creek Reservoir Number 1   (28) Coon Creek Reservoir Number 2   (29) Coon Creek Reservoir Number 3   (30) Coon Creek Reservoir Number 4   (31) Cottonwood Lake Number 2   (32) Cottonwood Reservoir Number 2   (33) Crum Reservoir   (34) Currier Reservoir   (35) Deep Creek Reservoir Number 2   (36) Glacier Springs   (37) Granby Number 11 Reservoir   (38) Granby Reservoir Number 11   (39) Granby Reservoir Number 12   (40) Granby Reservoir Number 4   (41) Granby Reservoir Number 5   (42) Granby Reservoir Number 6   (43) Granby Reservoir Number 7   (44) Granby Reservoir Number 9   (45) Granby Reservoirs   (46) Grand Mesa Reservoir Number 1   (47) Grand Mesa Reservoir Number 6   (48) Grand Mesa Reservoir Number 8   (49) Grand Mesa Reservoir Number 9   (50) Griffith Lake   (51) Griffith Number 1 Coon Creek 1 Reservoir   (52) Hallenbeck Reservoir Number 2   (53) Hogchute Reservoir   (54) Hollenbeck Reservoir Number 2   (55) Jenson Reservoir   (56) Jumbo Reservoir   (57) Lake Of The Woods   (58) Little Battlement Lake   (59) Long Slough Reservoir   (60) Lost Lake   (61) Lost Reservoir   (62) Mesa Creek Reservoir Number 4   (63) Mesa Lake   (64) Mesa Lake Number 1   (65) Mesa Lake Number 2   (66) Mesa Lake Number 3   (67) Mesa Lakes   (68) Monroe And Barnes Reservoir   (69) Osborn Reservoir   (70) Pine Park 1 Reservoir   (71) Pine Park Reservoir Number 1   (72) Pine Park Reservoir Number 2   (73) Rapid Creek Reservoir Number 1   (74) Rapid Creek Reservoir Number 2   (75) Robbins Reservoir   (76) Scales Lake Number 1   (77) Scales Lake Number 2   (78) Scales Reservoir Number 1   (79) Scales Reservoir Number 3   (80) Somerville-mccullah Reservoir   (81) Spring Creek Reservoir Number 1   (82) Stump Pond   (83) Summit Reservoir Number 1   (84) Summit Reservoir Number 2   (85) Sunset Lake   (86) Twin Basin Reservoir   (87) Vincent Reservoir Number 2   (88) Water Dog Reservoir   (89) West Griffith Lake   (90) Whale Reservoir  

Spring


(1) Mule Spring  

Stream


(1) Big Beaver Creek   (2) Cheever Creek   (3) Cottonwood Creek   (4) Deep Creek   (5) Gill Creek   (6) Little Beaver Creek   (7) Reservoir Creek   (8) Sheep Creek   (9) Skunk Creek   (10) South Tate Creek   (11) Willow Creek  

Summit


(1) Barney Hill   (2) Chalk Mountain  

Trail


(1) Carson Lake Trail   (2) Coal Creek Trail   (3) Cottonwood Lakes Foot Trail   (4) Deep Creek Trail   (5) Foot Trail   (6) Godding Eisberry Grade   (7) High Trail   (8) West Bench Trail  


(updated 2014)



Cities Nearby Zip Code 81643

Collbran Ccd, CO  (pop. 2,450) 12.0 Miles
Palisade Town, CO  (pop. 2,817) 12.8 Miles
Whitewater-kahnah Creek Ccd, CO  (pop. 2,532) 13.2 Miles
Collbran Town, CO  (pop. 385) 13.9 Miles
Cedaredge Ccd, CO  (pop. 8,808) 15.9 Miles
De Beque Ccd, CO  (pop. 844) 16.1 Miles
Cedaredge Town, CO  (pop. 2,691) 16.1 Miles
Clifton Ccd, CO  (pop. 27,971) 16.6 Miles
De Beque Town, CO  (pop. 442) 18.4 Miles
Clifton Cdp, CO  (pop. 19,456) 18.5 Miles



Zip Codes Nearby Zip Code 81643

81646  (pop. 177) 8.4 Miles
81526  (pop. 5,338) 12.3 Miles
81418  (pop. 1,555) 13.6 Miles
81413  (pop. 4,486) 13.9 Miles
81527  (pop. 1,402) 14.4 Miles
81520  (pop. 12,238) 16.7 Miles
81504  (pop. 21,986) 19.8 Miles
81410  (pop. 1,544) 20.0 Miles
81503  (pop. 23,407) 21.1 Miles
81624  (pop. 1,436) 21.5 Miles



Area Code(s) in Zip Code 81643

970



Elevation in Zip Code 81643 is 6,942.0 ft. (2,116.0 meters)





Latitude/Longitude of Zip Code 81643

Lat: 39.076700 N        Long: -108.119900 W



Back to Top

Economic Analysis

People and the communities they live in depend on money. The people of zip code 81643 need food, shelter, clothing, and medical care. Business formation and job creation are essential to this community. Money sustains infrastructure such as roads and airports as well as human resources including fire rescue and police protection.

Energy Costs In Colorado

    Residential
(cents per
kilowatthour)
Commercial
(cents per
kilowatthour)
Industrial
(cents per
kilowatthour)
Other
(cents per
kilowatthour)
Transportation
(cents per
kilowatthour)
Total
(cents per
kilowatthour)
1990              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.02 5.67 4.49 7.28 0.00 5.89
  Total Electric Industry 7.02 5.67 4.49 7.28 0.00 5.89
1991              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.07 5.73 4.56 7.34 0.00 5.95
  Total Electric Industry 7.07 5.73 4.56 7.34 0.00 5.95
1992              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.20 5.77 4.59 7.61 0.00 6.02
  Total Electric Industry 7.20 5.77 4.59 7.61 0.00 6.02
1993              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.24 5.82 4.52 7.72 0.00 6.05
  Total Electric Industry 7.24 5.82 4.52 7.72 0.00 6.05
1994              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.36 6.00 4.58 7.43 0.00 6.07
  Total Electric Industry 7.36 6.00 4.58 7.43 0.00 6.07
1995              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.42 6.07 4.52 7.87 0.00 6.12
  Total Electric Industry 7.42 6.07 4.52 7.87 0.00 6.12
1996              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.49 5.93 4.35 7.69 0.00 6.05
  Total Electric Industry 7.49 5.93 4.35 7.69 0.00 6.05
1997              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.42 5.77 4.28 8.00 0.00 5.95
  Total Electric Industry 7.42 5.77 4.28 8.00 0.00 5.95
1998              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.45 5.67 4.34 7.92 0.00 5.95
  Total Electric Industry 7.45 5.67 4.34 7.92 0.00 5.95
1999              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.38 5.61 4.38 8.23 0.00 5.95
  Total Electric Industry 7.38 5.61 4.38 8.23 0.00 5.95
2000              
  Energy-Only Providers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  Full-Service Providers 7.31 5.55 4.25 7.77 0.00 5.88
  Total Electric Industry 7.31 5.55 4.25 7.77 0.00 5.88
2001              
  Full-Service Providers 7.47 5.67 4.48 8.36 0.00 6.02
  Total Electric Industry 7.47 5.67 4.48 8.36 0.00 6.02
2002              
  Full-Service Providers 7.37 5.67 4.52 6.64 0.00 6.00
  Total Electric Industry 7.37 5.67 4.52 6.64 0.00 6.00
2003              
  Full-Service Providers 8.14 6.60 5.10 0.00 7.32 6.77
  Total Electric Industry 8.14 6.60 5.10 0.00 7.32 6.77
2004              
  Full-Service Providers 8.42 6.89 5.11 0.00 5.81 6.95
  Total Electric Industry 8.42 6.89 5.11 0.00 5.81 6.95
2005              
  Full-Service Providers 9.06 7.62 5.74 0.00 5.01 7.64
  Total Electric Industry 9.06 7.62 5.74 0.00 5.01 7.64
2006              
  Full-Service Providers 9.02 7.50 5.88 0.00 7.78 7.61
  Total Electric Industry 9.02 7.50 5.88 0.00 7.78 7.61

(updated 2006)



Time Leaving to Work in Zip Code 81643

12:00 A.M. TO 4:59 A.M.   : 10   (3.3%)
5:00 A.M. TO 5:29 A.M.   : 8   (2.6%)
5:30 A.M. TO 5:59 A.M.   : 12   (3.9%)
6:00 A.M. TO 6:29 A.M.   : 17   (5.5%)
6:30 A.M. TO 6:59 A.M.   : 42   (13.7%)
7:00 A.M. TO 7:29 A.M.   : 54   (17.6%)
7:30 A.M. TO 7:59 A.M.   : 53   (17.3%)
8:00 A.M. TO 8:29 A.M.   : 45   (14.7%)
8:30 A.M. TO 8:59 A.M.   : 16   (5.2%)
9:00 A.M. TO 9:59 A.M.   : 19   (6.2%)
10:00 A.M. TO 10:59 A.M.   : 11   (3.6%)
11:00 A.M. TO 11:59 A.M.   : 3   (1.0%)
12:00 P.M. TO 3:59 P.M.   : 17   (5.5%)
4:00 P.M. TO 11:59 P.M.   : 0   (0.0%)


(updated 2010)



Occupations in Zip Code 81643

Male:


  • Management, Professional, And Related Occupations: 65  (35.7%)
  • Service Occupations: 26  (14.3%)
  • Sales And Office Occupations: 10  (5.5%)
  • Farming, Fishing, And Forestry Occupations 9  (4.9%)
  • Construction, Extraction, And Maintenance Occupations: 43  (23.6%)

Female:


  • Management, Professional, And Related Occupations: 56  (36.1%)
  • Service Occupations: 20  (12.9%)
  • Sales And Office Occupations: 60  (38.7%)
  • Farming, Fishing, And Forestry Occupations 0  (0.0%)
  • Construction, Extraction, And Maintenance Occupations: 12  (7.7%)


(updated 2010)





There are 55 Farms In Zip Code 81643


(updated 2008)









Modes of Transportation in Zip Code 81643

Car, Truck, Or Van:

 

Drove Alone

72.64%

Carpooled

17.02%

Public Transportation:

 

Bus Or Trolley Bus

0.91%

Streetcar Or Trolley Car

0.0%

Subway Or Elevated

0.0%

Railroad

0.0%

Ferryboat

0.0%

Taxicab

0.0%

Motorcycle

0.0%

Bicycle

0.0%

Walked

2.74%

Other Means

0.0%

Worked At Home

6.69%



(updated 2010)





Back to Top

Housing Analysis

Everyone needs shelter in rented housing or individually owned homes. Each community, including zip code 81643, is different from the rest based on overall architecture, appearance, occupancy, average housing square footage, average home value, and average home age.





(updated 2010)







Percentage of Family Households in Zip Code 81643: 71.1%

Percentage of Family Households in Colorado: 63.9%


(updated 2010)









Median Household Income In 2000 (81643, CO): $40,625
Median Household Income In 2000 (Colorado): $47,203


(updated 2010)



Median House/Condo Value in 2000 (81643): $159,600
Median House/Condo Value in 2000 (Colorado): $160,100


(updated 2010)



Median Gross Rent in 2000 (81643): $600
Median Gross Rent in 2000 (Colorado): $671


(updated 2010)



Most Commonly Used Heating Fuel in Zip Code 81643

Utility Gas: 26.8%
Bottled, Tank, Or Lp Gas: 39.7%
Electricity: 11.4%
Fuel Oil, Kerosene, Etc.: 0.0%
Coal Or Coke: 3.7%
Wood: 14.7%
Solar Energy: 1.1%
Other Fuel: 2.6%
No Fuel Used: 0.0%


(updated 2010)





(updated 2010)





Back to Top

Government Analysis

People run the government through election of representatives and officials. Local governments are important to provide cohesion between individuals who must share public places. Worthwhile laws need to be debated, passed, and then enforced for a community to remain viable. Communities such as zip code 81643 are often affected in positive and negative ways by government performance.



Closest Nuclear Power Plant To
Zip Code 81643

Name: Palo Verde
Address: PO Box 52034; Phoenix,AZ 85072-2034
Distance: 445 Miles


(updated 2007)



Social Security Users in Zip Code 81643

    Retired Workers: 110
    Disabled Workers: 15
    Widowers Workers: 5
    Spouses Workers: 10
    Children Workers: 10


(updated 2007)



Back to Top

Taxes Analysis

Using tax dollars, government officials keep public places in repair, protect citizens, and provide for important services for the benefit of zip code 81643 citizens.

Income Tax Rates in Colorado

Low Bracket: $0 (4.63%)
High Bracket: $0 (4.63%)


(updated 2008)



Sales Tax Rates in Colorado

2.90%


(updated 2008)



Back to Top

Weather Analysis

The enjoyment of the area in which you live is often affected by the weather. Each individual has a different view on what weather patterns will make them most happy. Some people love the seasons, others enjoy warm temperatures throughout the year while others may love the snow. The weather provided for zip code 81643 is based on over 50 years of data.



Storms In Zip Code 81643

  Fatalities Injuries Property
Damage
Crop
Damage
Hail        
08/11/1999, 02:45 pm 0 0 $30K --
         
Thunderstorm Wind        
06/28/2005, 03:28 pm 0 0 $4K --
09/08/2000, 01:30 pm 0 0 $8K --
         



Back to Top

Crime Analysis

Everyone wants to feel safe. Individuals and families want to remain protected from violent or property crime. The crime data should not be totally relied upon when making a decision on where to live. If you are concerned, visit zip code 81643 directly or research local government web sites.

Number of Sex Offenders In Colorado

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
8,381 9,125 11,369 9,961 6,950 10,980 14,666 15,240 16,098 16,471


(updated 2014)



Back to Top



Do you want to research zip code 81643? If you are considering a move, want to view where your friends live,
or just discovering a new place to travel, our data will interest you!

Use any data on this web site at your own risk. citymelt.com does not warrant or certify the correctness of data.